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P51 Mustang Attack 
Flight Simulator 


© 1985 All Rights Reserved 

TAPE $29. 95 
DISK $34. 95 
CABLE $10* 5 

32K Machine Language 

All Tom Mix Software is sold on an as is basis. No warranty is expressed or implied except that the 
program will load. Copies of this program may not be made without the express permission of Tom 
Mix Software. 



TAPE— CLOADM . . Program will auto execute. 
DISK— LOADM "P51". . Program will auto execute. 

This is a serious software program and not a game. This simulation requires practice. To gain flying 
experience please read the flight manual very carefully. Know your plane before your first flight. 








Air Speed Indicator 2 

Altimeter 2 

MDA light 2 

Heading Indicator 2 

Radar 2 

Wing Leveler 3 

Aileron Position Indicator 3 

Elevator Position Indicator 3 

Throttle indicator 3 

Fuel Gage 3 

Flaps 3 

Gear 3 


MODE indicator 3 




























Turns 10 

Speed 10 


Screen Description 2 

Skill Levels 5 

Bullet Hole Locations and Associated 

Malfunction 6 

Max Level Cruise Speed Table 7 


P51 MUSTANG FLIGHT SIMULATOR is both an aerial dogfight game and a flight simulator. 

With one computer it is a flight simulator with the ability to takeoff, land, fly to other airports, do aerobatics, 
and practice shooting at a drone aircraft. 

Two computers allow you to have a very realistic aerial dogfight battle. Each computer is a separate 
plane with the ability to see and shoot at the other plane. If the computers are side by side they may 
be connected with a 3 wire cable via the RS-232 ports. If you and a friend have modems you may 
connect your computers by MODEM over the phone lines. 

No other piece of software for any personal computer has ever attempted a real time fast action game 
of this type over a MODEM. We are very proud of this innovation and hope you have hours of enjoy- 
ment battling friends across town from the comfort of your home. 


For Flight Simulator: 

1) 32K or 64K Color Computer 

2) One joystick (spring centering and trims are highly desirable, such as on Radio Shack's deluxe 

Side by Side Aerial Dogfight: 
Two computers (connected as diagrammed in Fig. 1) 
One 3 wire RS-232 cable ($10.95 from Tom Mix Software) 

V^-V'Njv" *" ' 

Modem Aerial Dogfight 
Two computers, a 300 baud modem for each computer 


Your aircraft has performance approximately equal to the best of the WWi! fighter sircrsF such as a 
P51-Mustang, Messerschmidt BF-109 or Mitsubishi Zero-sen. 

Your flight, space mess^es 20 miles x 20 miles x 51.000 feet. This is divided into A ; : cual quadrants. 
At the center of each quadrant is a 400 ft. >. 5,000 ft. runway running North-South. ;o the njnt <y 
ieft of each runway is a beacon, 

V-»i : 

are »n a wrap around world. If you fly beyond the north boundary of quadani 
!v appear at the south boundary of quadrant 3. Flying straight in any one directs 
where you started from. 

you' will immediate- 
wil? oring you Pack 

If you are flying single" (not linked to another computer) the other piane becomes a drone He wH' 
fly's straight descending course. He will go from 51.000' down to 0' and instantly pop tack un to 51 ,000'. 
When the drone is very high and you are low it is possible for him to be out of visual 'ange uven if 
you fly to his same location on radar and look straight up. In such cases just loiter in the area unt;'- 
he descends closer to your altitude. The drone is traveling at about 120 mph so you wifl tend to psss 
him uu when trailing him. The drone allows you to have target practice. The drone wii! however never 
turn nor shoot back. 


Maximum level cruise speed at sea level — 344 mph 

at 20.000 ft. — 460 mph 

Maximum rate of climb at sea level — 4,000 ft/min. 

Maximum rate of climb speed at sea level — 160-180 mph 

Service Ceiling — 40,000 ft. 

Approach Speed (Flaps Dn) — 120-130 mph 

Rotation Speed (Takeoff Speed— Flaps Up) — 110 mph 

Glide Ratio at 120 mph, flaps dn, gear up 37,000' - 13:1 

sea level - 9:1 

Engine is turbocharged and gives full power up to 20,000' available power drops as you go above 20,000'. 
At 32.500' Y2 power is available. 

Armament — 1 gun in each wing, 99 rounds for each gun. 
Fuel Capacity — approx. 10 minutes at full throttle. 
Landing Gear are Retractible, Flaps are either full up or full down. 
Landing Gear cannot withstand ground speeds greater than 200 mph. 
Stall speed at sea level Flaps up — 100 mph 

Flaps down — 85 mph 


-90° i — r 













*l Damaged 

:*ni plane 

5? under 

T repair 


E U 

dicales wing leveler "ON" 

Alternately displays 

your mode and mode 

of other player 


light Path 

of plane 


Stall warning 
appears here 

Indicates Radar 
Digital ^ is now viewing 
Heading Quadrant 1 


Air Speed Indicator — marked in MPH x 10, gives TRUE air speed. 
There is no wind so your ground speed equals the air speed. 
Indicator range is 50-450 mph. 

Altimeter — indicator range is thru 51,000 feet. Long needle is 100's of feet. Short needle is 1,000's of 
feet. Small line on outside of altimeter circle is 10,000's of feet. 

MDA light — located left of the letters "ALT". Flashes when you are below the Minimum Descent Altitude 
which is permanently set at 500 feet. When you are below 500 feet you cannot be seen by the 
enemy's radar. Thus, whenever the MDA light is flashing you are blind to the enemy's radar. A 
high pitched beep-beep-beep sounds for 10 seconds whenever you go from above 500 feet to 
below 500 feet. This serves as a warning not to hit the ground. 

Heading Indicator — Gives aircraft heading relative to true north. Though less accurate than the digital 
heading the analog indicator is easier to read. Press 'H' key to return to Hdg indicator when view- 
ing the radar. 

Radar — pressing key 1, 2, 3 or 4 gives a ground radar view of the corresponding quadrants. The 
line in the center of the scope picture is the runway in the center of each quadrant. The radar 
antenna is located on the ground and transmits its picture to your plane. The enemy's trace shows 
up in red, while your trace will be blue. When the enemy is in war mode he will not show up on 
your radar if he is below 500 feet. Your aircraft will always show up on your own radar regardless 
of altitude. Any aircraft that is on, or directly above a runway will not show up on either radar. 

The radar display is a "storage scope" which means that all points plotted remain on the scope. 
Eventually a trace representing the aircraft flight path will form. If the scope gets cluttered you 
can clear it by pressing the 1, 2, 3 or 4 key again. 

To view the heading indicator instead of the radar, press the 'H' key. 

Wing Leveler — toggles on and off by pressing the 'L' key. An L is displayed at the upper left of the 
Air speed indicator if the wing leveler is on. The wing leveler will level the wings if the joystick 
is near center. This makes the plane much easier to handle, especially if you have joysticks without 
spring centering. The maximum roll rate is lower when the Wing Leveler is on. 

Aileron Position Indicator — corresponds to joystick position in the left-right direction. The ailerons 
control ground steering. You can pivot while stationary by applying brakes, giving Vi throttle and 
steering with ailerons. 

Elevator Position Indicator — corresponds to the joystick position in the up-down direction. Pulling 
back pulls the nose up. Pushing forward pushes the nose down. When centered there is no lift 
created. This means that to maintain level flight some up elevator must be applied. 2-4 increments 
down from the center mark will usually work at speeds between 150-350 mph The faster you are 
going, the less up elevator you will need. 

Throttle Indicator — OP stanas for OPen throttle. CL stands for CLosed throttle. The '♦' and 'V keys 
change the throttle setting. The setting will remain in the same position until changed by the T 
'*' keys. If you are above 20.000 feet full throttle will not be attainable. The throttle indicator is 
also a power indicator, it shows % of full power being produced. On a real piston airplane engine 
throttle setting and power being produced are two separate things. However, on this simulator 
to conserve space and for ease of operation the two are one and the same. 

Fuel Gage — You will be filled with fuel whenever you are on a runway and not moving. If the fuel 
runs out. the throttie indicator will drop to CLosed and you will have to glide down witn no power. 
At full OPen throttle the fuel will last about 10 minutes. At Vz power it will last 20 minutes, at V* 
power it will last 40 minutes, etc. In other words the fuel flow is directly proportional to the throttle 
power setting. Your airspeed has no effect on fuel flow. 

Flaps — The flaps are cycled up and down with the 'F' key. To cycle from one position to the other 
takes about 8 seconds. Flaps down increases lift and greatly increases drag. 

Gear — the landing gear are cycled up and down with the 'G' key. If the gear are not fully down when 
you land you will land on your belly and damage the plane. If you exceed 200 mph while on the 
ground the gear will be destroyed and you will fall onto your belly if up elevator is not being ap- 
plied. If you make a very hard landing the gear will collapse and you will land on your beiiy. In 
all of the above 3 cases the destruction of the landing gear is represented with a bullet hole directly 
beiowthe letters "GEAR". This particular bullet hole can therefore be a result of your own aircraft 
abuse or can be caused by being hit with a bullet from the enemy. All other bullet holes can only 
be caused by being hit with a bullet from the enemy. 

Whenever you are on your belly, the engine is disabled and the throttle will not operate. Fly- 
ing with the gear down increases drag and lowers your air speed. If you touch down off of the 
runway the landing gear wili be bent due to the rough ground. If bent, the landing gear will not retract. 

SHOTS — indicates the number of shots remaining in each of the two guns. You are reloaded whenever 
you are on a runway and not moving. The guns will shoot continuously when the fire button is 
pressed. It is not necessary to repeatedly press the fire button to fire more than one shot. 

MODE indicator — The "W", "P", "T" and "U" keys choose WAR, PEACE, TALK and TURKEY respec- 
tively. The mode you are in and the mode the enemy is in are displayed alternately. If the enemy 
is declaring war while you are not in war mode, a low tone is sounded each time his mode is 
aisplayed. The tone is also sounded if the enemy requests "TALK" mode. A 'bleep' noise is sounded 
when TURKEY is displayed. Declaring peace has no associated sound. Also, when both com- 
puters are in the same mode there is no sound made. 


PEACE MODE — designed to allow newcomers to familiarize themselves with the game without fear 
of being shot down. If both computers are in PEACE mode all runways are safe to land on for 
both computers. If the supply of airplanes is low 2 airplanes for each runway will be supplied by 
pressing 'N' (stands for New airplanes). If either computer is not in PEACE mode the 'N' key will 
not work. Pressing the fire button while in PEACE mode will cause WAR to be declared but will 
not allow bullets to be fired for 10-20 seconds. This forces both players to give a 10-20 second 
warning before opening fiie. The Geneva Convention dictates that you declare war before firing. 

WAR MODE — Only runways under your command are safe for your plane to land on. Landing on 
an enemy's runway or on his sector will allow his ground personnel to shoot at you, you will receive 
a bullet hole about every 4 seconds while on the ground (it is likely that you will not be able to 
take off again). When the enemy is in war mode you may only reset to runways under your com- 
mand. The runways in your command are displayed as black numbers on a white background 
in the margin to the right of window. You can capture an enemy runway (and any planes on that 
runway) by hitting that runway's beacon 5 or more times. You will then have command of that 
runway and of that quadrant. 

When one player has no more airplanes he is expected to surrender by going from WAR to 
PEACE mode. The victorious player is then expected to also go into PEACE mode after which 
either player may press 'N' to restored planes to each runway. After 'NT is pressed the Answer 
computer will have command of runways 2 and 4 while the originate computer will command run- 
ways 1 and 3. 

TALK MODE ■— If both players choose TALK mode the play of the game "Freezes" thus allowing you 
to each pick up the phone and converse with each other. The game un-freezes after both com- 
puters go to any mode other than TALK mode. 

TURKEY MODE — merely allows you to call the other guy a turkey. Going from PEACE mode to TURKEY 
mode is essentially the same as declaring war, the only difference is that TURKEY means you 
have not fired a shot yet. Declaring TURKEY for over 20 seconds will enable your fire button. 
When you do press the fire button you will always transmit WAR mode. 

ATTITUDE INDICATOR — located in the margin left of the window. The indicator line follows the posi- 
tion of the horizon. The center represents 0° (level). The marks are at 30° intervals. When the 
line is at the top of the window you are at -90° (straight down). With the line at the bottom of 
the window you are at +90° (straight up). The attitude indicator was included primarily because 
whenever the window is all blue, or all black you have no other clue as to what your attitude is. 

STALL INDICATOR — The word STALL will flash on and off whenever your airspeed is near or below 
the point where even full up elevator will not sustain level flight. Stall speed is affected by the 
Flaps and your altitude (for a aetailed discussion see "getting technical"). 

WiNDOW VIEW — the window gives a forward looking view of the world. The sky is blue, the ground 
is black. The ground and horizon are flat. (Some have said this is because the program author 
lives in Kansas). The visual range at which you can see the other plane is 3 1 /2 miles in the center 
of the window and increases to Th. miles at the edges. (You can see farther out the corner of 
your eye). At first the other plane will appear as a very small white dot. The dot will then get bigger 
and bigger until he gets to 4000' feet or closer, at which point he will appear as an airplane. The 
enemy is within shooting range whenever he is within visual range, however it is of course much 
easier to hit him as he gets closer. 

The beacons of all 4 runways are always visible. At long distances they will appear as bluish 
colored dots. As they get closer they will become larger and larger white dots. Only the runway 
lights of the quadrant you are in are within visual range. If you fly towards any of the beacons 
you will eventually see the runway lights "pop" into view. 

The window cracks whenever the plane crashes or collides with the other plane. 

The angle of view out the window is 45° up, 45° down, 60° left and 60° right. (This is a WIDE 
angie view). 

RUNWAY STATUS — located in the margin right of the window. Numbers with a white background 
are quadrants under your command, numbers with a black background are quadrants under com- 
mand of the enemy. Each runway starts with 2 planes. Originate starts with command of quadrants 
1 and 3 while Answer starts with command of quadrants 2 and 4. The plane you are in is not in- 
cluded in the display. If you crash (crack the windshield) your plane is totaled and is beyond repair. 
You must acquire a new airplane (see "choosing a runway '). 

If a plane is damaged but has no crack in the windshield the plane is repairable. Each run- 
way has a repair shop for one (and only one) aircraft. After you exit a damaged aircraft it is placed 
in the nearest repair shop, unless the nearest repair shop is full in which case your plane is lost. 

A plane under repair will appear as a line instead of an airplane symbol. Repair will take from 
20 seconds to 5 minutes depending on the extent of the damage and the distance from the run- 
way, (see "bullet holes") 

CHOOSING A TAKEOFF RUNWAY — To exit the plane you are currently in press 'R' and 1. 2, 3, or 
4 keys simultaneously. You will then appear at the end of the runway you chose in a new airplane. 
R* stands for "Reset or "Runway", whichever you prefer. The originate computer is always plac- 
ed slightly right of centerline, the answer computer is always placed slightly left of centerline. When 
the enemy is in war mode you may NOT 'eset to a runway under his command. Resetting to a 
runway without servicable planes cannot be done. (A plane under repair is not servicable). 

You may reset to another runway at any time but normally you will only want to do so if the 
plane you are currently in is destroyed or on a runway and stopped. Resetting from a moving air- 
craft is like 'ejecting' and thus causes the plane you are currently in to be destroyed (cracked 

RUNWAY BEACONS — The beacon at each runway contains the defenses for that runway. Hitting 
a beacon of an enemy runway 5 or more times will give you command of that quadrant and will 
capture any planes at that runway. All four beacons are always visible. Only the runway of the 
quadrant you are currently in is visible. 







Beacon Hits required to 
capture a quadrant 

Plane Hits: Bullet 
holes to foe ratio 

, Altitude below which ra- 
j dar cannot see enemey 


1 hit = 2 bullet holes 

can always 
see enemy 

1 hit «= 1 bullet hole 



'2 hits « 1 bullet hole 
cannot inflict more 
than 7 bullet holes 


'Beacon also appears bigger than normal. 
**When both players are in level 3 1 hit = 1 bullet hole and both players can inflict 15 bullet holes. 

The program starts out with both players in Level 2. To change the level both computers must go to 
TALK mode. While the computers are "Frozen" press the 1, 2, or 3 keys to choose your level. The 
level chosen will be displayed left of the TALK message. The level the enemy chooses is displayed 
to the right of the TALK message. 


Flying an airplane is difficult! Before attempting a dogfight with anyone try flying the plane by yourself 
for a few hours to get the feel of the plane. When flying in the singles mode it is best not to use the 
MODEM version. The CABLE version has a faster update rate. Everything will move at the same speed 
but will move smoother. 

1) After program executes you will see the airplane panel and either a red or a blue sky. Press the 
C key to change the color of the sky. When the sky is the desired color press 'ENTER'. 

2) The words "Originate or Answer?" will now be displayed. When flying single you may choose 
either one. Press "O" or *A" to choose. 

3) The words "MODEM Y/N" will appear. "Y" will choose modem version, "N" chooses Cable ver- 
sion. We recommend the Cable version for single sessions. 

4) After pressing "N" in step 3 you will see J| displayed in the window. This is your prompt to choose- 
your initial takeoff runway. Press the "1" key. 

5) You are now facing North at the end of runway 1. 

6) If your joystick has trims, adjust them so that the ailerons are perfectly centered. Position the elevator 
trim 2-4 increments below the center mark. 

7) Press the "L" key to turn on the wing leveler. 

8) Assure that the fuel is full and you are fully loaded with 99 bullets. 

9) Press and hold the T key until the throttle indicates full open. 

10) Wait until the airspeed reaches 110 and pull full back on the elevator. The plane should rise from 
the ground. Slowly release back pressure on the elevator so as not to climb too steeply, or you 
will stall. 

11) Press the 'G' key to raise the gear. 

12) Climb to 1,000 feet (long needle on 0, short needle on 1). Level the plane out by applying less 
up elevator. If you fly straight and level the plane will eventually accelerate to about 340 mph. The 
steeper you climb the slower the plane will fly. You are in a high performance piston airplane but 
it will not climb straight up for more than a few seconds. To some the plane will seem low powered 
and sluggish while to those who have flown low performance aircraft such as a Cessna-150 the 
plane will seem like a "hot-rod". 

13) Keep flying straight and level at a North heading. The beacon of runway 3 will be visible directly 
ahead. The wing leveler will help you keep the wings level. You should see your flight path being 
drawn on the radar scope. After about a minute you will reach the northern boundary of quadrant 
1. You will then be in quadrant 3. The runway of quadrant 3 will be visible directly ahead. The 
runway will become better defined and bigger as you get closer. To view yourself on radar press 
the '3' key as you are now in quadrant 3. In about 2 minutes you will come to the northern boun- 
dary of quadrant 3. at which time you will again be in quadrant 1. You are in a "wrao around" 
world The runway ahead is the runway you took off from. 


Each quadrant is 10 miles x 10 miles. From the center of the runway to the edge of the quadrant 
is 5 miles. The runway is 5,000 feet long (about 1 mile). Please keep these dimensions in mind 
when you view yourself on radar as you make your landing approach. The easiest way to practice 
landings is to stay straight and level after taking off and landing on the runway in the quadrant 
ahead of you This way you will always be aligned with the runway and all you need to worry about 
is the elevator and throttle. Landing is difficult! Do not expect a good landing the first try, just be 
thankful this is a simulator and not a real airplane! 

We are assuming you are flying straight and level at 1,000 ft. altitude at aboui 340 mph. At 5-6 miles 
from the runway reduce the throttle to V 8 . As the airplane slows down slowly increase up elevator 
as needed to maintain 1.000 ft. At about 3 miles from the runway the airspeed will be 200 mph. 
At this point push the "G" key to lower the gear. When the plane slows to 150 mph push the "F ' 
Key 'o lower the flaps. When the plane slows to 130 mph start your descent. The center of the 
crosshairs is where the plane is headed. The end of the runway should be at the center of the 
cross hairs. If you are too high reduce the throttle. If you are toe low, increase the throttle. At IOC 
ft. if you know you "have the runway" reduce the throttle to zero and slowly pull back on the elevator. 
As you get close to the ground the horizon should be level with the cross hairs or slightly above 
the cross hairs. Ideally, the STALL indicator should sound at about the same time you touch the 
ground. When on the ground, press and hold the 'BREAK' key to apply brakes. When you are 
completely stopped you will be filiea with fuel and bullets. 


Each time the opponent hits your plane one bullet hole will appear. There are 15 possible bullet hole 
locations. Each hole has an associated malfunction. The order in which they appear is random. 
However, the less serious malfunctions are more likely to appear first. The hole locations and their 
associated malfunction is diagrammed in figure 5. 

Figure 5 

Bullet Hole Locations and Associated Malfunction 




Max Engine Power Reduced 8 increments 9. 

Cannot Decrease Power 

Max Engine Power Reduced 12 10. 


Elevator Neutralized 11. 

Guns Jammed 12. 

Cannot Increase Power 13. 

Max Engine Power Reduced 11 14. 


Elevator less effective 15. 

Tendency to turn extreme right, wing 

leveler disabled 

Tendency to turn left, wing leveler 


Air Speed Indicator Inoperative 

Altimeter Inoperative 

Landing Gear Broken 

Fuel Leak, all fuel will leak out in one 

minute or less 

Radar Inoperative 

None of the malfunctions are necessarily fatal. It is possible to "ditch" the plane without cracking the 
windshield even with 15 bullet holes. It is, however, very difficult! If you "ditch" your plane into 
a quadrant which is under enemy command your plane will be captured. In this case it is to your 
advantage to crash and render the plane beyond repair. If you land in an enemy quadrant, on 
or off the runway, you will be shot at by ground personnel and will receive a bullet hole every 4 

If you successfully land a damaged plane in a quadrant under your command your plane will remain 

yours and can be repaired. Repair time is determined as follows: 

Each bullet hole adds 20 seconds. 

Collapsed landing gear adds another minute. 

Bent landing gear adds 20 seconds. 

Distance from runway adds from 20 sec. to 9 minutes depending on how far away you land. 

Repair time will vary plus or minus 30 seconds. 

Maximum repair time possible is 14 minutes. 
When the straight line in the margin changes to a small airplane symboi, the plane is repaired and 

readv for use. 





sea level 




























Fire Button on right joystick — fire bullets 
Right Joystick — Elevator and ailerons 
Left Joystick — not used 

?' T — throttle 
1, 2, 3 or 4 — view corresponding quadrant on radar 
R and 1, 2, 3 or 4 — Reset to runway 1, 2, 3 or 4 
H — Return from radar display to heading display. 
G — Cycle the landing gear 
F — Cycle the flaps 
L — Toggle wing leveler on or off 
W — Declare WAR 
P — Declare PEACE 
T — Declare TALK 
U — Declare TURKEY 
N — New airplanes at runways 
BREAK' — Applies brakes while key is pressed. 


'— ' '— •' — Move the pointer left or right 

T — Set the pointer 

'ENTER' — Manually exit Synchronize routine 


'C — Change sky color 

'ENTER' — Procede 

'A' or 'O' — Originate or Answer 

'BREAK' — Sends $55 while key is pressed 

'Y' or 'NT — Y for Modem; N for Cable 



2) 'C Key for sky color 

3} 'ENTER' key to procede 

4) 'O' or 'A for Originate or Answer 

5) 'Y' for MODEM; 'N' for CABLE 


a) pressing keys sends ASCII codes to MODEM 
(some smart MODEMS need this) 

b) Press and release "BREAK' key to enter SYNCH routine 


c) use ' — ' '— • keys to position c) Does nothing 
pointer below the null 

d) '!' sets the pointer d) Does nothing 

6) 1. 2, 3 or 4 key to choose takeoff runway 



1) TAPE — CLOADM program will auto execute; DISK — LOADM "P51" program will auto exec 

2) Press 'C key to change color of the sky. On most TV's the sky color will be either blue or red each 
time the 'C key is pressed. Adjust the color and tint controls on the TV if needed. 

3) Fress 'ENTER' after obtaining a blue sky. 

4) "Originate or Answer?" is now displayed. Press 'O' or 'A to choose. When linked to another com- 
puter by MODEM or CABLE one must be Originate and the other must be Answer. 

5) "MODEM Y/N" is now displayed. Press "Y" for MODEM version "N" for CABLE. If the MODEM 
version is chosen you will enter the SYNCHRONIZE routine. If the CABLE version was chosen you 
will procede directly to step 6. 

6) ii is displayed. The numbers displayed represent the location of the four runways. Press 1, 2, 3, 
or 4 to choose the corresponding runway you wish to take off from. 


1} After pressing Y' in answer to the prompt "MODEM Y/N" two limit lines will appear above and 
below the prompt "MODEM Y/N". 

2) At this time pressing keys will send standard ASCII codes over your MODEM at 300 BAUD. Press- 
ing keys at any other time does not send anything over MODEM. Most modems can be set to originate 
or answer manually and do not need to send their MODEM characters from the keyboard. If your 
Modem is already manually set to Originate or Answer then procede directly to step 3. 

3) Pressing the "BREAK" key performs two functions: 

a) While the "BREAK" key is held down you will send $55 to your modem. 

b) Upon release of the "BREAK" key you exit the mode which sends keyboard characters to the 
modem and you enter the SYNCHRONIZE ROUTINE. 

4a) At this point if you are the answer computer you should see red bars form between the two limit 
lines except at the edges. The bars represent data received correctly. The Answer computer piays 
a passive role during the SYNCHRONIZE routine. When Originate is done synchronizing your 
sky will be restored to total blue and & will appear as a cue to pick your takeoff runway. 

4b) The Originate computer plays an active role during the synchronize routine. Red bars should form 
between the limit lines. After 2 complete scans there should be a well defined NULL area. The 
Null area typically appears as partial red bars falling off to a totally black area. Depending on 
the Modems and phone connection the null may vary in appearance. The idea is to look for any 
black regions. Position the pointer directly below the center of the null area by pressing the "*-" 
or " — " key. It is not critical that the pointer be exactly at the center of the null, within 1 or 2 posi- 
tions left or right of center will normally work. After the pointer is at the desired position press 
the "•" key to set the pointer. If everything is set up properly the originate computer will now 
automatically exit the synchronize routine within 10 seconds. Upon exit your sky will be totally 
blue and y will appear at the bottom of your window. You are now ready to choose your takeoff 
runway. The SYNCH setting is now permanently set for the duration of the game. Both Originate 
and Answer may manually exit the SYNCH routine by pressing "ENTER". This, however, should 
never be needed if you -are connected properly. 


Your phone connection may occasionally produce noise which will cause data to be misread. This 
can cause various disturbances, none of which destroy the playability of the game. The following may 
occur — 

1) The location of the other plane will be misread causing him to momentarily disappear from view, 

2) False bullet holes will appear. This can be very disturbing, but the associated malfunctions will 
only be felt momentarily The bullet holes in the window will be erased if the horizon passes over 
them. The program is made so that for the bullet holes to be refreshed and for the malfunctions 
to remain you must continuously receive data from the other plane that you are hit. There is no 
routine which erases the bullet holes, however. That is why the bullet hole remains until it is erased 
by the horizon. 

3) You may spuriously gain or lose command of a sector. This is the only type of mis-read error which 
has permanent effects. You can look upon it as ground forces overunning the sector. 

All of the above occur very infrequently, especially if you have a clear phone connection. During all 
the hours of testing the above errors only happened when something was set up wrong or the connec- 
tion was poor. Every effort was made to prevent occasional data errors from inflicting permanent effects. 



Joystick does not move the ailerons or 


Joystick not plugged into "Right Joystick" 

When attempting to fly single (not linked 
10 another computer) the program 

Printer, modem or other device is plugged 
into RS-232 port. 

When dogfighting by MODEM the pro- 
oram "freezes". 

Both computers are in TALK mode. 

The computer on the other end has 
unplugged his MODEM from his 

Any type of disconnection that causes 
your computer to continually receive a Lo 
at the RS-232 port. 

You are originate and the program will not 
automatically synch after pressing the T 

MODEMS not functioning properly. 

Phone connection is too noisy. 

The Answer computer has manually ex- 
ited the SYNCH routine and is no longer 
sending you the expected SYNCH tone. 

COMMENT: This program has been successfully tested over long distance phone lines. Both AT&T 
and SPRINT connections worked. The SPRINT connection did produce occasional mis-read errors 
but was definitely playable. The program will update slightly slower over long distance phone lines. 


Processor. 6809 E 

Update rate: 7-9 frames/sec by CABLE {average of 8) 
3-5 frames/sec by MODEM (average of 4) 

All routines are in the program. No jumps to ROM are made. No additional MODEM software is needed. 

Requires 32K of memory. 

Both computers update at the same rate. After performing all calculations and screen updates your 
computer goes into a data transmit ready state. As soon as both computers are in the data transmit 
ready state both computers trade information. 

Data Transmission rate: 300 BAUD by modem 

6,000 BAUD by direct cable 


There are several features of this simulator which are not totally realistic. Some of them are discussed 

1) Window View - 

The view out the window of a real aircraft is the direction the plane is pointing, in this simulator 
your window view is the direction the plane is traveling. At cruise speeds the two are one and 
the same. But when at low speeds (such as during a good landing) the nose is pointing several 
degrees higher than the direction the plane is traveling. The program points the window view in 
the direction the plane is traveling in order to make landing easier. If you place the horizon slightly 
above the window center mark you know you are in a slow descent, and are assured of a soft landing. 

2) Bullets - 

In a real aircraft the bullets that you shoot would not travel to the center of the window when you 
are in a tight loop. Instead they would drop off towards the bottom of the window. To simulate this 
effect would require lengthy, time consuming trajectory calculations for each pair of bullets shot. 
The update rate would be slowed down and the enemy would be more difficult to hit. 

3) Stalls - 

In a real aircraft stalls are solely a function of the wing angle of attack. For each wing at a given 
speed there is a specific angle above which air ceases to flow smoothly over the wing and lift drops 
greatly. Stalls can occur at any speed if you apply enough up elevator. Most planes are designed 
so that full up elevator brings you past the stall point. 

This simulator never truly stalls. If it did you would tend to frequently stall the plane during a dogfight. 
You have no pressure feedback from the control surfaces and you don't feel the G forces caused 
by tightly looping, both of which are valuable to sensing the stall point in a real aircraft. 

Your STALL indicator would more accurately be described as a stall SPEED warning. Your indicator 
is solely a function of speed, not angle of attack. It functions just as most people think it should, 
but it is actually unrealistic. 

4) Update time constant - 

The program assumes that a fixed period of time (Vi second for Modem, V e second for CABLE) 
has passed between each update. During times that the update rate is slower (such as during fast 
rolls or when the windshield is cracked) the computer does not compensate for the increased time 
added to each update. Thus it's as if you go into slight "slow motion." This is not realistic, but both 
computers will always update at the same rate, thus not allowing an advantage to either plane. 



It is common to think that Ailerons turn the plane and that the elevator controls only up and down. 
Truth is ailerons roll the plane, elevator controls up and down and/or the turn rate. When the wings 
are level, up elevator causes the plane to go up, but when banked 90° left or right, up elevator causes 
the plane to turn (change heading). When banked somewhere between level and 90° and you apply 
up elevator some of the force is directed upward and some is directed left or right. The ailerons are 
used to roll to the desired bank angle, the elevator then is used to apply the force which turns the 
plane. In summary: ailerons roll the plane, elevator turns the plane. 


It is common to think that the throttle controls speed. Truth is that during stable sustained flight the 
elevator has more to do with speed than the throttle. If you continually apply up elevator the plane 
will slow down. Decrease the amount of up elevator and the plane will speed up. During a landing 
approach with the throttle cut, applying more up elevator will momentarily cause the plane to rise, 
but the long term effect is to slow the plane down (and possibly stall). To decrease your rate of descent 
you must apply more throttle, not more elevator. When you apply more throttle the short term effect 
is for the plane to speed up. But the long term effect is for the plane to climb and for the speed to 
settle back down to its original value. After thinking all this through you will agree that the long term 
effects of elevator and throttle are as follows: 

throttle controls climb or descent rate 
elevator controls speed. 

When in an uncontrolled dive remember that up elevator will only cause you to go up if your wings 
are level. Applying elevator when your wings are not level only turns you sharper. 

When you are upside down the elevator controls are reversed, up will make you go down, down will 
cause you to go up. 

For ease of operation there is no rudder control on this simulator.